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"India has witnessed an average annual growth of 5 per cent in the last 2-5 years and manufacturing was hit the hardest. Manufacturing is considered as the biggest job creator however with the slowdown of economy and use of automation, the growth of employment has been 1.8 per cent. India has almost 50% of its population under the age of 24 years and this demographic dividend needs to be effectively utilized for faster economic growth. The country needs to grow by 7-8 per cent in order to generate enough jobs for the 12.8 million people entering the job market each year."

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"India has one of the largest technical manpower in the world. However, compared to its population it is not significant and there is a tremendous scope of improvement in this area. In India, the emphasis has been on general education, with vocational education at the receiving end. This has resulted in large number of educated people remaining unemployed. This phenomenon has now been recognised by the planners and hence there is a greater thrust on vocationalisation of education. Another shortcoming in the area of technical and vocational education is that till now, the number of engineers graduating is more than the diploma holders. This is creating an imbalance, as more workforces are required at the lower level. Hence more polytechnics and Institute for Industrial Training (ITIs) are being opened now. Besides, various Ministries are trying to impart vocational courses through innovative institutions, specially launched for the purpose. In doing so, the government is trying to maintain quality of these courses. Under the XIth Plan, vocationalisation of education has received a boost with more funds being allocated for the purpose. Besides, it is also being ensured that the marginalised sections of the society, including women, get adequate representation in these courses. It can thus be hoped that TVET will play a major role in improving the lives of the people of India."

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"India is among the countries with the lowest proportion of trained youth in the world. Moreover, Vocational Education carried out in secondary schools (since the mid-1980s) has received very limited funding in recent times; it has remained non-aspirational, of poor quality and involves little industry collaboration. In contrast, the Vocational Education and Training (VET) system in Germany is characterized by much higher proportion of youth participation, intensity of private sector participation and a basis in legislation."
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"An Ernst & Young report19 indicates that vocational education and training in India suffers from a poor perception vis- -vis mainstream higher education programs. This is marred by a lack of pathways between VET and mainstream education. Due to the perceived difference in potential job opportunities, status and wages students in grade 11 and grade 12 typically want to proceed to further education rather than undertake vocational training. Only 3% of students in upper secondary schools (grades 11 &12) enroll in secondary school vocational education programs. Currently there are 6 800 upper secondary schools in the country offering 100 VET subjects that provide orientation to selected jobs. Whilst there are places for 400 000 students in these subjects, currently only 40% of these places are filled— presenting a very inefficient system and illustrating the effect of the poor perception of the VET sector."

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